火搏体育

聚焦十九大走进新时代

聚焦十九大走进新时代

思政课是落实立德树人根本任务的关键课程

时间: 2019-09-03  来源: 《求是》杂志

2020niandi17qi《qiushi》zazhifabiaozhonggongzhongyangzongshuji、guojiazhuxi、zhongyangjunweizhuxixijinpingdezhongyaowenzhang《sizhengkeshiluoshilideshurengenbenrenwudeguanjiankecheng》,xianquanwenzhuanzai。


思政课是落实立德树人根本任务的关键课程

xijinping

火搏体育jintian,womenzaizheilizhaokaixuexiaosixiangzhengzhililunkejiaoshizuotanhui。canjiahuiyidezhuyaoshidazhongxiaoxuesizhengkeyixianjiaoshi。shouxian,woxiangzaizuogeweilaoshi,xiangquanguodazhongxiaoxuesizhengkejiaoshi,zhiyichengzhidewenhou!

gurenshuo: “jingjiaoquanxue,jianguozhidaben;xingxianyucai,weizhengzhixianwu。”jiaoyushiminzuzhenxing、shehuijinbudezhongyaojishi,shigongzaidangdai、lizaiqianqiudedezhenggongcheng,duitigaorenminzonghesuzhi、cujinrendequanmianfazhan、zengqiangzhonghuaminzuchuangxinchuangzaohuoli、shixianzhonghuaminzuweidafuxingjuyoujuedingxingyiyi。

qingshaonianshizuguodeweilai、minzudexiwang。xianzai,woguogejigeleixuelijiaoyuzaixiaoshengdadao2.7yi,quanguogeleigaodengjiaoyuzaixuezongguimodadao3779wanren。qingshaonianjieduanshirenshengde“bajieyunsuiqi”,zheiyishiqixinzhizhujianjianquan,siweijinruzuihuoyuezhuangtai,zuixuyaojingxinyindaohezaipei。“mengyiyangzheng,shenggongye。”jiushishuoqingshaonianjiaoyuzuizhongyaodeshijiaojitamenzhengquedesixiang,yindaotamenzouzhenglu。sizhengkeshiluoshilideshurengenbenrenwudeguanjiankecheng,sizhengkezuoyongbuketidai,sizhengkejiaoshiduiwuzerenzhongda。

xiamian,wojiujigewentijiangdianyijian,tongdajiajiaoliu。

第一个问题: 办好思想政治理论课意义重大

womendanglilaigaoduzhongshisizhengkejianshe。zaigeming、jianshe、gaigegegelishishiqi,womendangduisizhengkejianshedouzuochuguozhongyaobushu。xinminzhuzhuyigemingshiqi,womendangzaihongjundaxue、suweiaidaxue、kangrijunzhengdaxue、shanbeigongxuedenggaoxiaokaishe“dangdejianshe”、“zhongguogemingyundongshi”、“maliezhuyi”、“bianzhengweiwuzhuyi”、“kexueshehuizhuyi”dengkecheng,zailieningxiaoxuekaishe“shehuigongzuo”kecheng,zaijiefangqudexiaoxue、shanganningbianqudezhongxuekaishe“zhengzhichangshi”kecheng。xinzhongguochenglihou,womendangjiuba“zhongguogemingchangshi”、“gongtonggangling”lieruzhongxuejiaoxuejihua,zaigaoxiaokaishe“zhongguogemingshi”、“maliezhuyijichu”、“zhengzhijingjixue”、“bianzhengweiwulunyulishiweiwulun”dengkecheng,qiangdiaozhonggaodengxuexiaozhengzhililunkederenwushiyongmakesilieningzhuyi、maozedongsixiangwuzhuangqingnian,peiyangjianqiangdegemingjiebanren。woshangzhongxueshi,xuedezhengzhikebenjiao《zuogemingdejiebanren》,shushangjiangde“reaishengchanlaodong,jiankufendou,yongzijideshuangshoujianshefuqiangdeshehuizhuyizuguo”,“lixiongxinzhuangzhi,zuogemingdejiebanren”deng,yingxianglewomenzheiyidairendelixiangxinnianherenshengxuanze。gaigekaifangyilai,dangzhongyangxianhouchutai10duogeguanyuxuexiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuodewenjian,duisizhengkejianshetichumingqueyaoqiu,buduantuidongsizhengkegaige。

2019年3月18日,中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平在北京主持召开学校思想政治理论课教师座谈会并发表重要讲话。 新华社发 盛佳鹏/摄

火搏体育banhaosizhengke,shiwofeichangguanxindeyijianshi。dangdeshibadayilai,dangzhongyangxianhouzhaokaiquanguogaoxiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuohuiyi、quanguojiaoyudahui,wojiusizhengkejiansheduocijiangguoyijian。woduijiaoyugongzuozaizheifangmianqiangdiaodezuiduo,jiaoyugongzuobiedefangmianwoyeqiangdiao,dansizhengkejianshewobixugengduoqiangdiao。zhenduiyiwujiaoyujieduanzhongdaodeyufazhi、yuwen、lishisankejiaocaijianshe,wotichuyaocongweihuguojiayishixingtaianquan、peiyangshehuizhuyijianshezhehejiebanrendegaodulaizhuahao。womenpeiyangrendemubiaoshishenmeyaogaoqingchu,xianzaifeichangmingquejiandingditichuyaopeiyangshehuizhuyijianshezhehejiebanren。2014nian,wozaishanghaikaochaqijianshuoguo,peiyuhejianxingshehuizhuyihexinjiazhiguanyaozailuoxiluoxiaoluoshishangxiagongfu,tebieshiyaozhuahaoqingshaoniandengzhongdianrenqun;zaibeijingshihaidianquminzuxiaoxuekaochashitichu,xuexiaoyaobadeyufangzaigengjiazhongyaodeweizhi,nulizuodaomeiyitangkebujinchuanbozhishi、erqiechuanshoumeide,rangshehuizhuyihexinjiazhiguandezhongzizaixueshengmenxinzhongshenggenfaya。2016nian,wozaibeijingshibayixuexiaokaochashiqiangdiao,jichujiaoyushilideshurendeshiye,yaoqizhixianmingjiaqiangsixiangzhengzhijiaoyu、pindejiaoyu,jiaqiangshehuizhuyihexinjiazhiguanjiaoyu,yindaoxueshengzizunzixinziliziqiang。zaiquanguogaoxiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuohuiyishang,woqiangdiaosixiangzhengzhililunkeyaojianchizaigaijinzhongjiaqiang、zaichuangxinzhongtigao,jishigengxinjiaoxueneirong、fengfujiaoxueshouduan,buduangaishanketangjiaoxuezhuangkuang,fangzhixingshihua、biaomianhua,dengdeng。2018nianwusiqianxi,wozaibeijingdaxuezhuanmenkaochalemakesizhuyixueyuan。jinniannianchu,woqunankaidaxueshiyeqiangdiaolesizhengkejianshe。

2019年9月10日,党和国家领导人习近平、李克强、王沪宁等在北京人民大会堂会见庆祝2019年教师节暨全国教育系统先进集体和先进个人表彰大会受表彰代表。 新华社记者 申宏/摄

火搏体育dangqianxingshixia,banhaosizhengke,yaofangzaishijiebainianweiyouzhidabianju、dangheguojiashiyefazhanquanjuzhonglaikandai,yaocongjianchihefazhanzhongguoteseshehuizhuyi、jiansheshehuizhuyixiandaihuaqiangguo、shixianzhonghuaminzuweidafuxingdegaodulaiduidai。womenzhengzaiweishixian“lianggeyibainian”fendoumubiaoernuli。weilai30nian,womenpeiyangderenyaonenggouwancheng“lianggeyibainian”deweiye。zheijiushijiaoyudelishizeren。womendanglizhiyuzhonghuaminzuqianqiuweiye,bixupeiyangyidaiyouyidaiyonghuzhongguogongchandanglingdaohewoguoshehuizhuyizhidu、lizhiweizhongguoteseshehuizhuyishiyefendouzhongshendeyouyongrencai。zheijiuyaoqiuwomenbaxiayidaijiaoyuhao、peiyanghao,congxuexiaozhuaqi、congwawazhuaqi。zaidazhongxiaoxuexunxujianjin、luoxuanshangshengdikaishesizhengkefeichangbiyao,shipeiyangyidaiyouyidaishehuizhuyijianshezhehejiebanrendezhongyaobaozhang。rendechengzhang、chengshu、chengcaibushiyicuerjiude,ershiyigejianjindeguocheng,jiugenrendeshenglifayuyiyang,suoyiyaobazheijigejieduandoupuchenhao。

火搏体育“weixuexuxianlizhi。zhijili,zexuewenkecidizheli。lizhibuding,zhongbujishi。”yaochengweishehuizhuyijianshezhehejiebanren,bixushulizhengquedeshijieguan、renshengguan、jiazhiguan,bashixiangerenjiazhitongdangheguojiaqiantumingyunjinjinlianxizaiyiqi。suizhewoguoriyikuodakaifang、riyizoujinshijiewutaizhongyang,woguotongshijiedelianxigengqujinmi、xianghuyingxianggengqushenke,yishixingtailingyumianlindexingshihedouzhengyegengjiafuza。xuexiaoshiyishixingtaigongzuodeqianyanzhendi,kebushiyigexiangyazhita,yebushiyigetaohuayuan。banhaosizhengke,jiushiyaokaizhanmakesizhuyililunjiaoyu,yongxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiangzhuhunyuren,yindaoxueshengzengqiangzhongguoteseshehuizhuyidaoluzixin、lilunzixin、zhiduzixin、wenhuazixin,houzhiaiguozhuyiqinghuai,baaiguoqing、qiangguozhi、baoguoxingzijuerongrujianchihefazhanzhongguoteseshehuizhuyi、jiansheshehuizhuyixiandaihuaqiangguo、shixianzhonghuaminzuweidafuxingdefendouzhizhong。

zheixienianlai,sizhengkejianshechengxiaoshixianzhude,jiaoxuefangfabuduanchuangxin,jiaoshilejiaoshanjiao、qianxinyuren,jiaoshiduiwuguimohesuzhiwenbutisheng,dazhongxiaoxuesizhengkeyitihuajianshechuxianchengxiao。tongshi,womenyeyaokandao,sizhengkejianshezhongdeyixiewentijidaijiejue。youdedifanghexuexiaoduisizhengkezhongyaoxingrenshihaibugoudaowei;ketangjiaoxuexiaoguohaixuyaotisheng,jiaoxueyanjiuliduxuyaojiada、siluxuyaotuozhan;jiaocaineironghaibugouxianhuo,zhenduixing、keduxing、shixiaoxingyoudaizengqiang;jiaoshixuanpeihepeiyanggongzuohaicunzaiduanban,duiwujiegouhaiyaoyouhua,zhengtisuzhihaiyaotisheng;tizhijizhihaiyoudaiwanshan,pingjiahezhichitixiyoudaijianquan,dazhongxiaoxuesizhengkeyitihuajianshexuyaoshenhua;minbanxuexiao、zhongwaihezuobanxuesizhengkejianshehaixiangduiboruo;geleikechengtongsizhengkejianshedexietongxiaoyinghaiyoudaizengqiang,jiaoshidejiaoshuyurenyishihenenglihaiyoudaitigao,xuexiao、jiating、shehuixietongtuidongsizhengkejianshedehelimeiyouwanquanxingcheng,quandangquanshehuiguanxinzhichisizhengkejianshedefenweibugounonghou。

火搏体育banhaosizhengke,youbushaowentixuyaojiejue,danzuizhongyaodeshijiejuehaoxinxinwenti。“yurenwuyi,bixianzixin。”sizhengkejiaoshibenshendoubuxin,haizenmejiaoxuesheng?womenyinggaiyouxinxinbanhaosizhengke。dangzhongyangduijiaoyugongzuogaoduzhongshi,duisixiangzhengzhigongzuo、yishixingtaigongzuogaoduzhongshi,shizhongjianchimakesizhuyizhidaodiwei,dalituijinzhongguoteseshehuizhuyixueketixijianshe,weisizhengkejianshetigonglegenbenbaozheng。womenduigongchandangzhizhengguilv、shehuizhuyijiansheguilv、renleishehuifazhanguilvderenshihebawobuduanshenru,kaipilezhongguoteseshehuizhuyililunheshijianfazhanxinjingjie,zhongguoteseshehuizhuyiqudejushizhumudechengjiu,weisizhengkejianshetigongleyoulizhicheng。zhongguoteseshehuizhuyililunshiyigetixi,xinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiangjiushizaidangqianzheigefazhanjieduanzhongguogongchandanglishixingtichulaide。haiyouzhonghuaminzujiqiannianlaixingchenglebodajingshendeyouxiuchuantongwenhua,womendangdailingrenminzaigeming、jianshe、gaigeguochengzhongduanzaodegemingwenhuaheshehuizhuyixianjinwenhua,weisizhengkejianshetigongleshenhouliliang。womentongguoshouzhengchuangxinxingchenglezhongguoteseshehuizhuyililuntixi,shouzhengjiubunengpianlimakesizhuyi、shehuizhuyi,danbushikezhouqiujian,haiyaowangqianfazhan、yushijujin,fouzejiushijianghuade、chenjiude、guoshide。sizhengkejianshezhangqiyilaixingchengdeyixilieguilvxingrenshihechenggongjingyan,weisizhengkejiansheshouzhengchuangxintigonglezhongyaojichu。youlezheixiejichuhetiaojian,youlewomenzheizhikexin、kejing、kekao,lewei、ganwei、youweidesizhengkejiaoshiduiwu,womenwanquanyouxinxinyounenglibasizhengkebandeyuelaiyuehao。

火搏体育banhaosizhengke,zuigenbendeshiyaoquanmianguanchedangdejiaoyufangzhen,jiejuehaopeiyangshenmeren、zenyangpeiyangren、weisheipeiyangrenzheigegenbenwenti。xinshidaiguanchedangdejiaoyufangzhen,yaojianchimakesizhuyizhidaodiwei,guanchexinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiang,jianchishehuizhuyibanxuefangxiang,luoshilideshurendegenbenrenwu,jianchijiaoyuweirenminfuwu、weizhongguogongchandangzhiguolizhengfuwu、weigongguhefazhanzhongguoteseshehuizhuyizhidufuwu、weigaigekaifangheshehuizhuyixiandaihuajianshefuwu,zhagenzhongguodadibanjiaoyu,tongshengchanlaodongheshehuishijianxiangjiehe,jiakuaituijinjiaoyuxiandaihua、jianshejiaoyuqiangguo、banhaorenminmanyidejiaoyu,nulipeiyangdandangminzufuxingdarendeshidaixinren,peiyangdezhitimeilaoquanmianfazhandeshehuizhuyijianshezhehejiebanren。

第二个问题: 办好思想政治理论课关键在教师,关键在发挥教师的积极性、主动性、创造性

火搏体育jianghaosizhengkeburongyi,yinweizheigekeyaoqiugao。zaizhejianggongzuoshi,wojidaxueshengjiangguosizhengke,dangshiwoyaoqiuzhejiangshengweibanzichengyuandoudaodaxuequjiangke,erqiedoulianxiyisuodaxue,wojiulianxizheda。wozaifujiangongzuoshiyequjiangguo。sizhengkejiaoxueshejimakesizhuyizhexue、zhengzhijingjixue、kexueshehuizhuyi,shejijingji、zhengzhi、wenhua、shehui、shengtaiwenminghedangdejianshe,shejigaigefazhanwending、neizhengwaijiaoguofang、zhidangzhiguozhijun,shejidangshi、guoshi、gaigekaifangshi、shehuizhuyifazhanshi,shejishijieshi、guojigongyunshi,shejishiqing、guoqing、dangqing、minqing,dengdeng。zheiyangdeteshuxingduijiaoshizonghesuzhiyaoqiuhengao。guoneiwaixingshi、dangheguojiagongzuorenwufazhanbianhuajiaokuai,sizhengkejiaoxueneirongyaogenshangshidai,zhiyoubuduanbeike、changjiangchangxincainengqudejiaohaojiaoxuexiaoguo。sizhengkeshangxueshenghuitiyixiejianruimingandewenti,wangwangshejishencengcililunheshijianwenti,bazheixiewentijiangqingchujiangtouchebingburongyi。womenzheigeguojiashiyigebuduanchengzhangdeguojia,shehuizhuyizhidushizaibuduantansuozhongwanshande,xianzaiquelilezhongguoteseshehuizhuyi。tongshi,xinzhongguochengli70nian、womendangchengli90duonianlai,shizaibuduanmosuozhongqianjinde,lijingkanke,yezoulexiewanlu,yechuxianlexiang“shinianhaojie”zheiyangdeqingkuang。duizheigewentiderenshiyaobawozhu,xiang《guojige》zhongchangdeneiyang,womendangyebushishenxianhuangdi,zaimosuozhongqianjinkendinghuiyoushiwu,buyaoyinweiyouzheixieshiwujiusangshiduidangdexinnian,dongyaoduiwomensuobingchidelixiangxinniandejiandingxing。

2019年7月15日至16日,中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平在内蒙古考察并指导开展“不忘初心、牢记使命”主题教育。这是16日上午,习近平在内蒙古大学图书馆同学生们亲切交谈,勉励他们志存高远、脚踏实地、发奋图强。 新华社记者 谢环驰/摄

“jingshiyiqiu,renshinande。”jiaoshichengzaizhechuanbozhishi、chuanbosixiang、chuanbozhenli,suzaolinghun、suzaoshengming、suzaoxinrendeshidaizhongren。sizhengkejiaoshi,yaojixueshengxinlingmaixiazhenshanmeidezhongzi,yindaoxueshengkouhaorenshengdiyilikouzi。wozaiquanguogaoxiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuohuiyishangshuoguo,“jiangsixiangzhengzhililunke,yaorangxinyangjianding、xueshiyuanbo、lilungongdishenhoudejiaoshilaijiang,rangxueshengzhenxinxiai、zhongshenshouyi”。jintian,woxiangjinyibutantansizhengkejiaoshisuyangdewenti。

2018年10月22日至25日,中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平在广东考察。这是10月24日下午,习近平在广州考察暨南大学时同部分港澳台同胞和海外侨胞学生交流。 新华社记者 鞠鹏/摄

第一,政治要强。火搏体育思政课要解决学生理想信念问题。要让有信仰的人讲信仰。对马克思主义的信仰,对社会主义和共产主义的信念,只有首先在思政课教师心中扎下根,才能在学生心中开花结果。思政课教师只有自己信仰坚定,对所讲内容高度认同,做学习和实践马克思主义的典范,才能讲得有底气,讲深讲透,才能有效引导学生真学、真懂、真信、真用。要善于从政治上看问题,自觉用新时代中国特色社会主义思想武装头脑,在大是大非面前保持政治清醒。教师是释疑解惑的,自己都疑惑重重,讲出来的东西不会是充分坚定、富有感染力的。

第二,情怀要深。火搏体育思政课要引导学生立德成人、立志成才。只有打动学生,才能引导学生。教师在课堂上展现的情怀最能打动人,甚至会影响学生一生。真信才有真情,真情才能感染人。我为什么对焦裕禄那么一往情深,就是因为我在上初中一年级时,当时宣传焦裕禄的事迹,我的政治课老师在讲述焦裕禄的事迹时数度哽咽,一度讲不下去了,捂着眼睛抽泣,特别是讲到焦裕禄肝癌最严重时把藤椅给顶破了,我听了很受震撼。思政课教师要有家国情怀,心里装着国家和民族,在党和人民的伟大实践中关注时代、关注社会,汲取养分、丰富思想。要有传道情怀,对马克思主义理论教育事业投入真情实感,对思政课教育教学有执着追求。要有仁爱情怀,把对家国的爱、对教育的爱、对学生的爱融为一体,心中始终装着学生,让思政课成为一门有温度的课。

第三,思维要新。思政课要教会学生科学的思维。思政课教师给予学生的不应该只是一些抽象的概念,而应该是观察认识当代世界、当代中国的立场、观点、方法。思政课教学是一项非常有创造性的工作,要学会辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义,善于运用创新思维、辩证思维,善于运用矛盾分析方法抓住关键、找准重点、阐明规律,创新课堂教学,给学生深刻的学习体验。在教学中可以讨论问题,更要讲清楚成绩;可以批评不良社会现象,更要引导学生正面思考;可以讲社会主义建设的复杂性和艰巨性,更要引导学生对社会主义前景充满信心。无论怎么讲,最终都要落到引导学生树立正确的理想信念、学会正确的思维方法上来。

第四,视野要广。思政课教师要有知识视野,除了具有马克思主义理论功底之外,还要广泛涉猎其他哲学社会科学以及自然科学的知识。要有宽广的国际视野。学生经常会把国外的事情同国内的情况联系起来,这个过程就会产生一些疑惑。学生的疑惑就是思政课要讲清楚的重点。要善于利用国内外的事实、案例、素材,在比较中回答学生的疑惑,既不封闭保守,也不崇洋媚外,引导学生全面客观认识当代中国、看待外部世界,善于在批判鉴别中明辨是非。还要有历史视野。历史是最好的老师。思政课教师的历史视野中,要有5000多年中华文明史,要有500多年世界社会主义史,要有中国人民近代以来170多年斗争史,要有中国共产党近100年的奋斗史,要有中华人民共和国70年的发展史,要有改革开放40多年的实践史,要有新时代中国特色社会主义取得的历史性成就、发生的历史性变革,通过生动、深入、具体的纵横比较,把一些道理讲明白、讲清楚。

第五,自律要严。火搏体育思政课教师对自己要求要严格,既要遵守教学纪律,也要遵守政治纪律和政治规矩,做到课上课下一致、网上网下一致,不能在课上讲得不错、却在课下乱讲,不能在现实生活中表现不错、却在网上乱说。思政课教师掌握着课堂的主导权和话语权,一定要自觉弘扬主旋律,积极传递正能量。遵守纪律,不意味着不能讲矛盾、碰问题。有的教师怵于思政课的意识形态属性,担心祸从口出,总是绕开问题讲、避开难点讲。只要坚持正确政治方向,立足于引导学生坚定理想信念,全面客观看问题,就不用担心在政治上出问题。要给教师充分的信任,不抓辫子、不扣帽子、不打棍子。

第六,人格要正。有人格,才有吸引力。亲其师,才能信其道。思政课教师要有堂堂正正的人格,用高尚的人格感染学生、赢得学生。要有学识魅力,用真理的力量感召学生,以深厚的理论功底赢得学生。思想要有境界,语言也要有魅力,从教师的话语中,学生能够感受到教师的人格和学识。要自觉做到修身修为,像曾子那样“吾日三省吾身”,像王阳明那样“诚意正心”、“知行合一”,自觉做为学为人的表率,做让学生喜爱的人。

第三个问题: 推动思想政治理论课改革创新,不断增强思政课的思想性、理论性和亲和力、针对性

gaigechuangxinshishidaijingshen,qingshaonianshizuihuoyuedequnti,sizhengkejiansheyaoxianggaigechuangxinyaohuoli。ruguozuoyitianheshangzhuangyitianzhong,zhaobenxuanke、yingfuchashi,nei“daokelv”、“taitoulv”shibidadazhekou。henduoxuexiaozaisizhengkeshangjijicaiyonganlishijiaoxue、tanjiushijiaoxue、tiyanshijiaoxue、hudongshijiaoxue、zhuantishijiaoxue、fenzhongshijiaoxuedeng,yunyongxiandaixinxijishudengshouduanjianshezhihuiketangdeng,qudelejijichengxiao。zheixiedouzhidekendingheguli。tuidongsizhengkegaigechuangxin,yaozuodaoyixiajige“tongyi”。

第一,坚持政治性和学理性相统一。政治引导是思政课的基本功能。强调思政课的政治引导功能,并不是要把课讲成简单的政治宣传,而要以透彻的学理分析回应学生,以彻底的思想理论说服学生,用真理的强大力量引导学生。马克思说: “理论只要彻底,就能说服人。”马克思主义理论就是彻底的理论。思政课教师所讲的理论、观点、结论要经得起学生各种“为什么”的追问,这样效果才能好。需要注意的是,不能用学理性弱化政治性,在大中小学的不同学段,无论是通过讲故事、讲历史还是讲理论的方式讲思政课,都要体现思政课的政治引导功能。

第二,坚持价值性和知识性相统一。思政课重在塑造学生的价值观,这一点必须牢牢抓住。强调思政课的价值性,不是要忽视知识性,而是要通过满足学生对知识的渴求加强价值观教育。只有空洞的价值观说教,没有科学的知识作支撑,价值观教育的效果也会大打折扣。当然,在思政课教学中也不能只强调知识性,不能为了应付考试让学生死记硬背知识点,而不注重对学生价值观的引导。学生有兴趣才会记忆,这种记忆是牢靠的,没有兴趣死记硬背就是死知识。知识是载体,价值是目的,要寓价值观引导于知识传授之中。比如,在讲授中国历史时,要注重引导学生传承民族气节、崇尚英雄气概,引导学生学习英雄、铭记英雄,自觉反对那些数典忘祖、妄自菲薄的历史虚无主义和文化虚无主义,自觉提升境界、涵养气概、激励担当。

第三,坚持建设性和批判性相统一。火搏体育思政课的任务是传导主流意识形态,建设性是其根本。同时,彻底的批判精神是马克思主义本质特征,马克思主义就是在同各种错误思潮的不断斗争中开辟前进道路的。思政课要在传播马克思主义立场、观点、方法的基础上用好批判的武器,直面各种错误观点和思潮,旗帜鲜明进行剖析和批判。任何社会任何时期都会有各种问题存在,要教育引导学生正确看待、辩证认识、理性分析现实问题,辨明大是大非、真假黑白,在对社会假恶丑现象的批判中弘扬真善美。要坚持问题导向,学生关注的、有疑惑的问题其实也就几大类,要把这些问题掰开了、揉碎了,深入研究解答,把事实和道理一条条讲清楚。实际上,有时候不一定讲得那么高大全,从一个问题切入,把一个问题讲深,最后触类旁通,可以带动很多关联问题,有可能是一通百通,提纲挈领。要练就不怕问、怕不问、见问则喜的真本领,不能见学生提问就发怵。真理从来是在诘问和辩难中发展起来的,如果一问就问倒了,那就说明所讲的不是真理或者自己还没有掌握真理。

第四,坚持理论性和实践性相统一。思政课要用科学理论培养人,遵循不同学段学生的认知规律,把马克思主义基本原理讲清楚、讲透彻。同时,马克思主义是在实践中形成并不断发展的,要高度重视思政课的实践性,把思政小课堂同社会大课堂结合起来,在理论和实践的结合中,教育引导学生把人生抱负落实到脚踏实地的实际行动中来,把学习奋斗的具体目标同民族复兴的伟大目标结合起来,立鸿鹄志,做奋斗者。

第五,坚持统一性和多样性相统一。思政课的教学目标、课程设置、教材使用、教学管理等方面有统一要求,但具体落实要因地制宜、因时制宜、因材施教,结合实际把统一性要求落实好,鼓励探索不同方法和路径。思政课教师在教学中要把统编教材作为依据,确保教学的规范性、科学性、权威性,同时也不能简单照本宣科。教材给出的是教学的基本结论和简要论述,要让不同类型的学生都爱听爱学、听懂学会,需要做很多创造性工作。要在教学过程中进行多样化探索,通过多种方式实现教学目标。

2014年5月30日上午,中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平来到北京市海淀区民族小学,参加庆祝“六一”国际儿童节活动。这是习近平参加少先队入队仪式。 新华社记者 李涛/摄

第六,坚持主导性和主体性相统一。思政课教学离不开教师的主导,同时要坚持以学生为中心,加大对学生的认知规律和接受特点的研究,发挥学生主体性作用。一些思政课堂运用小组研学、情景展示、课题研讨、课堂辩论等方式教学,让学生来讲,这有利于发挥学生主体性作用。教师要做好画龙点睛工作,加强引导和总结提炼。要教育引导学生多读读马克思主义经典著作、当代中国马克思主义理论著作、中华优秀传统文化典籍等。要开出书单、指出重点,让学生正确理解经典著作,掌握马克思主义精髓,感知中华文化魅力,避免教条主义、本本主义,避免一知半解误读马克思主义。

第七,坚持灌输性和启发性相统一。火搏体育灌输是马克思主义理论教育的基本方法。列宁说: “工人本来也不可能有社会民主主义的意识。这种意识只能从外面灌输进去。”让学生接受马克思主义,离不开必要的灌输,但这不等于搞填鸭式的“硬灌输”。要注重启发式教育,引导学生发现问题、分析问题、思考问题,在不断启发中让学生水到渠成得出结论。这里面,会讲故事、讲好故事十分重要,思政课就要讲好中华民族的故事、中国共产党的故事、中华人民共和国的故事、中国特色社会主义的故事、改革开放的故事,特别是要讲好新时代的故事。讲故事,不仅老师讲,而且要组织学生自己讲。

第八,坚持显性教育和隐性教育相统一。思政课要做思想政治教育的显性课程。有人提出把思政课变成隐性课程,完全融入其他人文素质课程中,这是不对的。我们办中国特色社会主义教育,就是要理直气壮开好思政课。同时,要挖掘其他课程和教学方式中蕴含的思想政治教育资源,实现全员全程全方位育人。既要有惊涛拍岸的声势,也要有润物无声的效果,这是教育之道。

yishangzheixie,shuodeshizhiyoudahaozuhequan,cainengjianghaosizhengke,danwulunzuhequanzenmeda,zuizhongyaoluodaobasizhengkejiangdegengyouqinheliheganranli、gengyouzhenduixingheshixiaoxingshanglai,shixianzhi、qing、yi、xingdetongyi,jiaorenkoufuxinfu。

第四个问题: 加强党对思想政治理论课建设的领导

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